Instructions: · Respond to two peers’ responses with a minimum of 250 words each · Use APA style Format and references. MUST be peer reviewed · Use APA style

Instructions:

· Respond to two peers’ responses with a minimum of 250 words each

· Use APA style Format and references. MUST be peer reviewed

· Use APA style in-text citations

PEER 1:

Tabitha

Health behaviors are things that directly affect health outcomes. They are any action or activity undertaken by an individual to maintain or enhance one’s overall health (Gurung, 2019). The seven health behaviors are: do you eat right, do you get adequate physical activity, do you smoke, do you drink in moderation, do you sleep enough, do you limit eating between meals, and are you at an appropriate weight? According to Gurung (2019), health behavior can have a positive or negative effect depending on how you engage in these seven health behaviors.

Health behaviors are all controlled by different factors. These factors can include biological, psychological, and social factors. According to Gurung (2019), your genes and what you inherit from your parents can predict various factors. For example, if we look at weight, Gurung (2019) states that some food preferences are biologically programmed into us. Also, Martin (2008) states that certain genes, such as RS1 if inherited from the mother, increase birth weight by 3% if inherited. On the other hand, Gurung (2019) states that some people may develop eating disorders such as anorexia or bulimia due to low self-esteem or the pressure to be slim. However, one culture can also significantly impact what you eat. For example, Nemec (2020) states that in Indian culture, grains are a staple, and they typically consume a vegetarian diet, whereas, in Mexican culture, they can include food such as beans, rice, and pozole, many of which can be high in sodium and fat.

Physical activity is extremely important because it can affect one overall weight, reduce mortality, and prevent cardiovascular diseases (Gurung, 2019). According to Gurung (2019), culture significantly impacts how much exercise one gets. For example, white boys spend fewer than three to four fewer minutes doing physical activity compared to Mexican American boys (Gurung, 2019). Also, those with a TV in their bedroom reported less physical activity, leading to a sedentary lifestyle (Gurung, 2019). On the other hand, a lack of physical activity can cause anxiety, depression, and a lack of self-esteem. According to Gurung (2019), girls in high school who reported getting physical activity reported having a healthier self-image and better coping with stress.

Both smoking and drinking are behaviors that can negatively impact one overall health. For example, Gurung (2019) mentions how cultural differences can significantly affect who develops these behaviors. For example, those who live in deprived neighborhoods have less income, have less access to healthcare, and are more likely to smoke (Gurung, 2019). Those who have friends who drink are more likely to begin drinking. Gurung (2019) states that there are some genetic components to smoking. Those with dopamine transporter gene SLC6A3 and receptor gene DRD2 are likelier to smoke (Gurung, 2019). Also, those children who have alcoholic parents are more vulnerable to alcoholism (Gurung, 2019). Certain personality types are more likely to smoke, such as those who have low self-esteem are more likely to smoke (Gurung, 2019). Those who drink and smoke have a higher risk of developing liver and heart disease.

Sleep deficiency is linked to many chronic health conditions, such as heart disease, depression, obesity, and diabetes (Chattu, 2018). According to Chattu et al. (2018), good sleep is necessary for physical and mental health. Those who suffer from psychological issues may struggle to sleep well, which can exacerbate these symptoms. Also, high levels of conflict between parents or family members can reduce the sleep quality in children (Grandner et al., 2015).

References

Chattu, V. K., Manzar, M. D., Kumary, S., Burman, D., Spence, D. W., & Pandi-Perumal, S. R. (2018). The Global Problem of Insufficient Sleep and Its Serious Public Health Implications.
Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland),
7(1), 1.

Links to an external site.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N. J., Izci-Balserak, B., Gallagher, R. A., Murray-Bachmann, R., Williams, N. J., Patel, N. P., & Jean-Louis, G. (2015). Social and Behavioral Determinants of Perceived Insufficient Sleep.
Frontiers in neurology,
6, 112.

Links to an external site.

Gurung, R. A. R. (2019).
Health Psychology: Well-Being in a Diverse World (4th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Martin M. A. (2008). The intergenerational correlation in weight: How genetic resemblance reveals the social role of families.
AJS; American Journal of Sociology,
114 Suppl(Suppl), S67–S105.

Links to an external site.

Nemec K. (2020). Cultural Awareness of Eating Patterns in the Health Care Setting.
Clinical liver disease,
16(5), 204–207.

PEER 2:

Carlynn DeVane

Enhancing and maintaining one’s health depends on how key, optimal health behaviors interact within that person’s daily life. While most health behaviors work within our biological configuration, psychological and social influences also impact our everyday choices. Within this structure are two primary levels: personal and institutional, where we wield the power to change our overall health and behaviors but also enlist the help of institutional support (Gurung, 2019). Jointly, we provide ourselves with a more vital ability to adhere to the seven health behaviors that promote a better quality of life. Research emphasizing behavior patterns instead of single behaviors provides more meaningful insight into how behavioral niches are structurally formed through social and cultural positions (Onge & Krueger, 2017).

Gurung (2019) outlines these seven elements as questions an individual should ask themselves to improve their health: Do you sleep 7-8 hours, eat breakfast, rarely eat between meals, do not smoke, moderately drink, exercise, and are of appropriate weight? The more health behaviors practiced by an individual equates to living longer. Gurung (2019) breaks up the list by classifying them as healthy or unhealthy behaviors while noting how each interacts and develops through the perspective of the biopsychosocial model. Nutrition and weight broadly define three of the seven health behaviors where consumption, food preference, and portion size coincide with one another’s health outcomes. Researchers have aimed to approach nutrition from a cultural perspective where the theoretical outline of the food pyramid acts as a blanket approach for appointing healthy eating habits (Gurung, 2019). An individual’s cultural background influences their perception of the topic of food and what they believe to be healthy or unhealthy. The universal idea of a balanced diet is then subjective to the individual based on their cultural preference and view of food. However, that does not constitute their behavior as healthy; sociocultural factors play a significant role in how food preference develops (Gurung, 2019).

Simultaneously, these same food preferences impact our weight and our body mass index, but again, the emphasis on culture remains essential in this conversation (Gurung, 2019). Researchers often consider factors of obesity to include genetics, nutrition, exercise, and ethnicity when outlining where a person’s “normal range” lies on a BMI scale. Consequences of poor nutrition, overeating, or not exercising can lead to health complications that impact our daily behaviors. Gurung (2019) outlines how obesity increases the chances of developing or having a chronic disease and exasperated health conditions, which leads to the association of comorbid outcomes and shortened life expectancy. Sleep deprivation is another factor that changes the brain, where difficulty controlling emotions, behavior, and coping with change becomes tasking, stressful, and problematic (NHLBI, 2022). Therefore, the impulse to soothe one’s psychological distress through food or other vices may trigger the creation of unhealthy health habits, which are plausibly preventable by opting for a balanced sleep schedule.

The media often fuels the structure of unhealthy eating habits and socially embellished body image goals to a point where severe consequences arise, such as eating disorders. Culturally, researchers have found that eating disorders are congruent across all cultures but differ in their perspectives of body image despite Western influence (Gurung, 2019). An individual with low self-esteem and an eating disorder may aim to achieve what they feel is a desirable look and, in doing so, may form unhealthy eating and exercise habits. Similarly, their chances of smoking may increase because the sensation of the drug blocks sensations of hunger and relieves feelings of anxiety (Gurung, 2019). The overconsumption of alcohol may trigger the development of bulimia nervosa in this individual, creating a compound outcome of an eating disorder and AUD. Alcohol is a tricky substance because of its dual-end influence on the brain. While alcohol use is primarily due to creating an “upper” effect on the brain by lessening the feeling of depression or anxiety, the substance causes an addictive behavior pattern where an individual needs alcohol to function and not feel the “low” effects.

In totality, research continues to connect the dots between biological, psychological, and social influences that cause consequential outcomes in people’s behaviors regarding their health. Aiming to change these poor health behaviors is not easy either, and it almost alludes to the idea that no change is better than attempting any. However, using tailored interventions and institutional support, individuals can adopt new healthy behavior patterns regarding their health, thus creating a better quality of life for themselves and those around them.

References:

Gurung, R. A. R. (2019).
Health Psychology: Well-Being in a Diverse World(4th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

NHLBI. (2022).
How sleep affects your health. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.

Links to an external site.

.

Saint Onge, J. M., & Krueger, P. M. (2017). Health Lifestyle Behaviors among U.S. Adults.
SSM – population health,
3, 89–98.

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